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Water baptism is treated critically and assigned strictly to the Baptizer in contrast with Spirit baptism (, 31, 33).
One is left with the impression that the sacraments of baptism and eucharist did not figure in the theology of the fourth evangelist." (p.
temple] and our nation." Finally, there is no mention of the Sadducees, which reflects post-70 Judaism.
The retort that there is also no mention of scribes misses the mark, as the Pharisees represented the scribal tradition, and the Pharisees are mentioned. But the earliest known usage of John is among Gnostic circles.
Furthermore, there is no account of the baptism of Jesus, and there is confusion about whether or not Jesus practiced baptism (compare and 4:2).
But at last Christ departed from Jesus, and that then Jesus suffered and rose again, while Christ remained impassible, inasmuch as he was a spiritual being" (1.26.1). How could it be that the Fourth Gospel was at one time in its history regarded as the product of an Egyptian-trained gnostic, and at another time in its history regarded as composed for the very purpose of attacking this same gnostic?
Irenaeus stated that the purpose of John at Ephesus was as follows: by the proclamation of the Gospel, to remove that error which by Cerinthus had been disseminated among men, and a long time previously by those termed Nicolaitans, who are an offset of that 'knowledge' [gnosis] falsely so called, that he might confound them, and persuade them that there is but one God, who made all things by His Word; and not, as they allege, that the Creator was one, but the Father and the Lord another; and that the Son of the Creator was, forsooth, one, but the Christ from above another (3.11.1) Helms argues: "So the gospel attributed, late in the second century, to John at Ephesus was viewed as an anti-gnostic, anti-Cerinthean work.
But at one several points it is stated that those who acknowledged Jesus as the Christ during the life of Jesus were put out of the synagogue.
This anachronism is inconceivable as the product of an eyewitness. The word aposynagogos is found three times in the gospel (, , 16:2).
922) Norman Perrin believes that the redactor who added the sacramental passages to the Gospel of John also authored the first epistle of John, in which the sacraments are emphasized. This seems likely, until we reflect on the oddity of people who purportedly deny that 'Jesus Christ came in the flesh' citing a gospel that declares 'the Word became flesh,' and 'whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood possesses eternal life.' Brown's argument founders on his insistence that 'John exactly as we have it' (108, his italics) was the text used by those who left the Johannine community.