The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Bogotá.These sites date from the Paleoindian period (18,000–8000 BCE).At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8000–2000 BCE) have been found.
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Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different.
Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes.
Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques.
The Muisca inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.