Clay pipe bowl dating
New developments in the use of fluxes for these glazes also permitted painting under a translucent glaze, a technique that had been almost impossible before. Abī Ṭāher, a member of a family of Kāšān potters that can be traced on signed and dated works from the 6th/12th to the 8th/14th century (, p. A number of surviving vessels and tiles are signed by artists with the (attributive name) al-Kāšānī or simply Kāšānī, suggesting that in that period it was understood to mean that the artist actually came from Kāšān (see, e.g., abuᵛ ṭāher; abuᵛ zayd b. Moḥammad al-Nīšāpūrī, who added that he was “dwelling in Qāšān” ( Kāšānī are two bowls in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (nos. Manṣūr al-Kāšī (generally accepted as short for “al-Kāšānī,” though, as also refers to tiles, for which Kāšān was famous, it may simply mean “the tilemaker”). 16159), as 562/1166, which was accepted by Pope as the earliest date on a ceramic object of the Saljuq period (, pp.
111-13, 116-18), which, when fired at high temperatures, fused into a fine, thin, dense body to which glazes of similar “glassy” ingredients adhered much more easily than to the earthenware body of earlier periods. One of the major centers was certainly Kāšān, from which ceramic artists traveled to other parts of the country to produce their wares for local consumption, especially tiles for architectural decoration. This conclusion seems confirmed by a luster-painted bowl signed by Moḥammad b. 5b, XLVIII) a tile dated Ṣafar 601/September 1204 and signed by Moḥammad b. The inscription encircling the body includes the date Moḥarram 575/June 1179. 63-64) read the date on an underglaze-painted ewer with openwork in the Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo (no.
There is very little firm evidence for either localization or precise dating of pottery made in Persia in the 5th/11th and early 6th/12th centuries, as few controlled excavations have been undertaken and very few dated specimens have been recorded. Another approximately contemporary technique involved cutting away parts of the slip to reveal larger areas of the ceramic ground as a dark foil against which floral, calligraphic, and frequently figurative designs are set (Plate xiii); these slip-carved wares have generally been dated to the 6th-7th/12th-13th centuries (Lane, 1965, pls.
Nevertheless, a large variety of pottery types from different parts of the country has been attributed to this general period, notably incised and slip-carved earthenwares, which have been published under a variety of labels, as proper attributions have so far been impossible (for detailed discussions and bibliographies, see Fehérvári, 1973, chap.
The most important event in the ceramic history of medieval Persia was the introduction of an artificial body, generally known as “frit,” possibly inspired by technology first developed in Egypt, whence some potters immigrated at the collapse of the Fatimid dynasty (297-567/909-1171; Lane, 1965, pp. It was compounded of such materials as powdered quartz (; Allan, 1973, pp. 1541ff.) have been largely discarded, there can be little doubt that many of the ceramic types developed during this period were produced in more than one locality.
In the second half of the 17th century, marks were increasingly placed straddling heels or spurs, on bowls, and on stems. For a detailed discussion of these types and the literature see Fehérvári (chap. A total of about eighty dated objects and a considerably larger number of dated tiles have been recorded from the 6th/12th to the mid-7th/13th centuries, but many of the published dates require verification. The extensive sequence of dated tiles is helpful, in establishing a fairly accurate chronology for related ceramic vessels and other objects. Details of this new ceramic technology are recorded in a unique text, written in 700/1301 by Abu’l-Qāsem ʿAbd-Allāh b. 64.178.1-2), dated respectively 4 Moḥarram 582/26 March 1186 and Moḥarram 583/March 1187; one is signed by Abū Zayd al-Kāšānī, but only the of the second signature is preserved. Aside from Kāšān, there must have been many other centers where fine frit wares were produced, as attested by the quantity of finds from various parts of Persia and the discovery of wasters and sometimes kilns. Oswald (19) provides a few important caveats when embarking on a study of pipe makers marks. This included nearly 99 percent of pipes manufactured in the early 17th century, though this estimate diminishes to about 40 percent of all pipes in the 19th century. And even if your pipe bears a complete mark, identification can be difficult to impossible because of the redundancy of pipe makers initials and the incomplete nature of pipe manufacture lists.
The centers where these new ceramics were produced are still a matter of scholarly debate.